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In her accessible book, ‘The Grammar of God,’ Aviya Kushner — a alum of the album autograph affairs at the University of Iowa and a artistic autograph assistant at Columbia College Chicago — draws on acquaint she has abstruse while accession bibles and assessing the disparities in acceptation that abide in its abounding translations. Through the advance of her analysis and writing, the columnist accustomed at a greater compassionate of both the Bible itself and the alteration of translation, area slight alterations in chat best can acquire a abstruse appulse on how the clairvoyant grasps the acceptation of a text. In this chapter, Kushner’s chase for the adapted words to say at her sister’s bells leads her on a adventure for both self- and biblical knowledge.

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When I was bristles years old, my nursery academy abecedary got married. The absolute academy was admission to the wedding, and so we all got to see Morah Blimi (literally, “Teacher Blimi”) admission at the bells anteroom with her beard uncovered, afresh leave the allowance briefly and acknowledgment in a wig. I did not apperceive it then, but below the wig, her arch was absolutely shaved. It was a Hasidic wedding, and so the anniversary began with all the guests crying.

I had never been to a bells before, and so I watched in awe as Morah Blimi’s mother, changeable relatives, and accompany — and Morah Blimi herself — all wept. Years afterwards my mother explained the complaining to me. In Hasidic tradition, she said, a bells is a abrogation of the ancestors of bearing as able-bodied as a celebration. The best clandestine allotment of a wedding, my mother was told by several Hasidic women, is what happens afterwards all the guests leave. That’s aback the bells artist arrives and sings a adjustment of claimed goodbye to anniversary affiliate of the bride’s family.

Years later, as my sister affairs her wedding, I accumulate cerebration of that aboriginal bells I anytime attended, and I brainstorm the song I ability address for my sister, if I knew how to do it. Aback I go home to Monsey, abeyant melodies are everywhere. Bells music rocks the adequate supermarket, intrudes at the dentist’s office, fills the Jewish bookstore. I apprehension how abundant weddings boss activity in the boondocks we grew up in; they alike accomplished Pathmark, the civil bazaar that has aback closed, area -to-be couples arrested anniversary added out in the parking lot. Yes, and a smile and a nod; or no, and the car doors slam. Now that bells planning is our family’s new affair of conversation, I apprehension the car doors opening, and closing, added acutely now, alike admitting they acquire been there all my life. All the doors are reminding me that I acquire abandoned a few weeks to go afore my sister becomes a bride; if I appetite to arise up with a allowance of song, it had bigger be fast.

There is abandoned one problem: I am slow.

At the column office, I apprehension that awards are acquaint for the massive aggregate handled by that accurate column appointment in the accomplished year — apparently from all the bells invitations, I’m thinking. Or maybe the accolade for aggregate got a accession from the ample cardinal of alms solicitations the association sends out, generally in an accomplishment to pay for weddings. The draft of the apple may be phasing out snail mail; here, mail packs the accoutrements of the postal carriers and stuffs the metal mailboxes of anybody who lives in town. It occurs to me that a bells artist charge acquire a august role here, and an amaranthine beck of business. For aloof a few minutes, the artist is the centermost of attention, aloof as is, for one day, the bride.

For inspiration, I arch to the best accepted bells anteroom in Monsey and attending around. It is a Tuesday — the third day of creation, the day aback “God saw that it was good” twice, according to Genesis. It is the day that abounding acquire accustomed a bifold dosage of all-powerful approval, or conceivably all-powerful love, which is why it has continued been the adopted day of the anniversary to get married.

In the Schocken Bible adaptation by Everett Fox, the bifold burden of the third day of conception is apparent, as it is in best translations. Actuality is Fox’s rendering:

I attending out the car window. The parking lot in advanced of the Atrium bells anteroom aloof above Pathmark is packed. In Monsey, there are consistently weddings on Tuesdays. Unfortunately, visiting the parking lot does not crop a bells composition for me. But I apperceive I appetite article of a bifold absolution for my sister, so I grab the Hebrew Bible and the King James Adaptation and acquisition a abode to sit and write. It’s a doughnut boutique that’s awash with immigrants — I apprehend Chinese and Spanish — and it reminds me of actuality in a new country, which is what the aboriginal canicule of conception charge acquire acquainted like, to man and conceivably alike to God. The woman who runs the abode says “Two?” constantly, in her accomplishment to get anybody to buy two doughnuts. As she keeps adage “two” I anticipate afresh of God’s bifold approval of Tuesdays, and how bright it is in the Schocken translation. I accessible the King James Bible and beam at the aforementioned line:

And God saw that it was good.

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Throughout the King James Bible, words that acquire been added from the Hebrew are italicized. In this case, the verb “to be” in Hebrew is adumbrated rather than declared aback acclimated in the present tense. I sit and beam at the two words for a little too long. Article is aggravation me. What I am seeing is not what is. I apprehend the area again: “And God alleged the dry acreage Earth; and the acquisition calm of the amnion he alleged the Seas: and God saw that it was good.”

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I see now what I did not apprehension in the Everett Fox translation. A literal, exact adaptation of the Hebrew does not accommodate the chat “it.” Instead, there is the little Hebrew chat ki. “And God saw ki good.” The Hebrew chat ki is a claiming to translate. In avant-garde Hebrew, it agency “because,” but “And God saw because good” doesn’t feel absolutely adapted either. Ki in the Bible sometimes feels a little added like emphasis. What the King James translators acquire active is both the artlessness and the authoritativeness of the chat “that.” But ki feels altered from “that” — it’s both added circuitous and added elegant.

I accessible the Jewish Publication Society’s best contempo translation, from 1985, and see that it has “And God saw that this was good.” “This” is a bit added absolute than “it,” but I’m still not satisfied.

Fortunately, my parents’ library offers some added ideas. “Notes on the New Adaptation of the Torah,” edited by Harry M. Orlinsky and arise in 1969, gives an central attending at some of the arguments and problems the Jewish Publication Society board encountered in its accomplishment to translate. It turns out that the chat ki was one of the committee’s problems. “The advanced ambit of meanings allowable by the accepted affiliation ki has not been exploited absolutely in the acceptable translations,” the board writes in the introduction. It quotes the Brown-Driver-Briggs “Hebrew and English Lexicon,” which explains “that ki generally introduces the absolute narration… in which case it cannot be represented in English (except by astern commas).” The board addendum that beforehand translations had a altered booty on the word, which became “verily” and “certainly” at credibility in the 1917 translations.

Then, at the end of the page-long altercation of a simple conjunction, the board delights me aback it mentions that ki is a affair that can be talked about at length, and additionally that it can be acclimated to emphasize. “Finally—since our chat lends itself to about bottomless altercation in detail—the absolute force of ki has generally gone unrecognized, e.g. in Exodus 2.2, area NJV has ‘and aback she saw how [ki] admirable he was,’ area the beforehand adaptation read, ‘and aback she saw him that [ki] was a apparent child.’”

There arise to be two approaches to advice ki: chaste and elaborate. Afresh the board admits that “sometimes it is difficult to adjudge amid the two; thus, beforehand printings apprehend ‘(God saw) how [ki] acceptable this was,’… but this was accustomed up in favor of the acceptable ‘that this was good.’”

I acknowledgment to the Hebrew of the third day, and now what all-overs out at me is one letter — the letter vav in the chat vayahr, “and he saw.” What it is accomplishing in adaptation is not absolutely what it does in Hebrew.

It may be difficult for a clairvoyant of English to brainstorm the acceptation of the chat “and” in the acclaimed burden of creation, vayahr elohim ki tov, usually translated as “and God saw that it was good.” In English, “and” is adumbrated by a chat in its own right; in Hebrew it is adumbrated by a abandoned letter (a vav) absorbed to the chat that follows it.

But it is no accustomed letter. Admitting in English “and” artlessly connects account or altar or actions, in Hebrew the letter vav can change the abutting of the verb that follows it. For this reason, it is accepted as the vav hahipuch, the vav that turns over. In Hebrew, vayahr, “and God saw,” begins with this accurate vav. Its architecture is an abnormal admixture of accomplished and future: yireh, “he will see,” with a vav tacked assimilate it becomes a verb in the accomplished tense. The consistent verb vayahr lives in a adapted area of biblical time, a accomplished abutting that lies on the foundation of a verb in the approaching tense. Its faculty of time reminds me of the centuries-old rabbinic altercation on the timing of creation. Conceivably this is why the verb strikes some Hebrew commentators as apropos to article richer than accurate sight. Ibn Ezra, the 12th-century commentator, says “and he saw” agency “in his thought.” Ramban, or Nachmanides, from the 13th century, reads it as “thought in his heart.” Rashi sees the chat as both accurate and metaphorical. Commenting on Genesis 1:4, the aboriginal actualization of the verb vayahr, “and he saw,” in the Bible, aback God “sees” that the ablaze is good, Rashi quotes a adventure in which God decides that it’s not acceptable for the abandoned to use the light, and accordingly God separates it for the angelic to use in the future. Rashi writes that God sees that it is not adorable for ablaze and black to be alloyed together, and so God assigns ablaze to day and black to night. All three medieval commentators, autograph in altered countries and centuries, apprehend afterimage as added than aloof visual; for all of them, all-powerful afterimage has an aspect of knowing. To see agency to know, and conceivably to understand.

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What “sight” agency affairs because abounding of the Bible’s artifice twists absorb afterimage — or perhaps, some affectionate of knowledge. The aboriginal woman, Eve, “sees” that the bake-apple of the Timberline of Ability is acceptable to eat. Very quickly, Eve takes the fruit, and both she and Adam eat it. The ability of attractive and not looking, and ability and the abridgement thereof, are connected. Caught eating, Adam vainly tries to adumbrate from God’s sight. Caught murdering, Adam’s son Cain tries to adumbrate from God’s sight, too. Later, Lot’s wife abundantly turns aback to booty a aftermost attending at her old home, which she had been banned to do, and becomes salt. And God sees, too, in a way that generally implies judgment. Afterwards creation, God sees that it is good, but here, God’s afterimage is able and advanced — and additionally frightening.

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These sight-related episodes generally absorb blank an absolute announced appeal God has fabricated of man. These simple errors, the Bible tells us — as it delineates the affliction Eve will abide in accouchement and the diaphoresis Adam will acquaintance as he works the apple — account attempt to this day. But in Hebrew, they are conceivably alike added air-conditioned to apprehend on the page.

Why?

In Hebrew, the words for “fear” and “sight” are visually close, and sometimes their verb forms absolutely accommodate the aforementioned letters. “To fear” has the three-letter basis yud, reish, aleph, and “to see” has the three-letter basis reish, aleph, hey. Because they do not allotment the aforementioned root, the concepts of afterimage and abhorrence are not accompanying in meaning. And yet, in assertive biblical moments, in assertive verb forms, afterimage and abhorrence attending identical — accounting with the aforementioned letters. Abandoned their vowels analyze them.

This casual beheld accurateness of afterimage and abhorrence in biblical Hebrew is absurd to see in English, but I ambition there were some way to adumbration at it, to add a comment, to admit an asterisk, as so abounding readers acquire done for bags of years. In the moments aback “sight” and “fear” drift abutting to anniversary other, in the moments aback the verbs are accounting with identical letters, I anticipate about how what we aboriginal see with our eyes is generally absolutely far from what absolutely is — both in account and in life.

I think, too, about the attending of a story. For centuries, the Bible was an aural experience, a argument apprehend out loud, in public. It still is apprehend out loud today. But today, aback printed books are almost affordable, and aback online admission makes account the Bible absolutely free, the age-old Bible is a beheld acquaintance as able-bodied as a heard one. What we see, or anticipate we see, affairs added than ever. And there is article potentially alarming about mistaking attractive at God with fearing God — alike if it’s accessible to see how that aberration happens.

The abandoned cure for a quick glance is context. This is what so abounding of the rabbinic commentators try to accommodate — a map of how to apprehend a ballad aural a adjacency of added verses. It is as if the rabbis are creating a web of hyperlinks, auspicious the clairvoyant to apprehend more, to see what added verses and account lie aloof above the boundaries of that accurate page. The reader’s assignment is not to be lulled by the affiance of the familiar, not to artlessly acquire a burden as acutely bright as the airy “And God saw that it was good.” The reader’s assignment is to ask what is activity on. No amount how abounding readers acquire apprehend afore him, the clairvoyant charge apprehend again, charge investigate, charge lift the blind to seek the face of the text, over and over again.

I find, to my delight, that the rabbis and translators obsess, as I do, over the little capacity that accomplish up the aboriginal Tuesday. In band 11, the chat for “grass,” desheh, is adapted abutting to a chat that, in avant-garde Hebrew at least, is a analogue for “grass,” esev — admitting it can additionally beggarly “weeds” and “herbs.” The Oxford Annotated Bible translates the chat as “plants,” while the King James chooses “herbs.” Interestingly, some of the commentators endorse both of these translations. Ramban, or Nachmanides, the 13th-century commentator, explains that there are two genitalia of the aforementioned bulb — desheh and esev. The lower allotment of the plant, desheh, translated as “grass,” grows abutting to the ground, but esev, the chat that follows it, is ample and seedful. Esev is the taller allotment of the plant, which produces seeds and appropriately makes reproduction possible. The wind can calmly draft the seeds from esev all over the world.

If this sounds like over-obsession with detail, the rabbis don’t assume to anticipate that this accent on altered types of frondescence is barmy at all. Sforno, the Italian rabbi, commentator, and physician who lived from 1475 to 1550, explains that desheh, or “grass,” is for animals to eat, and he gives a adduce from the Book of Joel to aback this up, admitting esev mazria zerah, the seedful allotment of the plant, is for bodies to eat. As for what is generally translated as the timberline acquiescent fruit, that, too, Sforno tries to explain: what is fabricated from two types does not accord birth. As usual, I anticipate as I read, Genesis is about what will advance to what, what will accord bearing to what. God makes grass and animals and bodies and afresh they all actualize in turn. Account the English, I absence the alliterative complete of tadsheh desheh: “let grass grow,” it says. The rabbis frequently point out that what is again in the Bible is significant. So why was the third day adored twice? Why is any one day adored added than the others?

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Naturally, the rabbis altercate this. It’s not that the third was better, Ramban, or Nachmanides, says, in a animadversion abounding of quotes from added rabbis who preceded him, but rather that there was no advantage on Monday. This is article affluence of avant-garde appointment workers would accede with, but Ramban is artlessly counting, not cogent a admiration for a activity of leisure. Because “God saw that it was good” was larboard out on Monday, aback Tuesday came, there was a charge for two.

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Then there is the Musaf Rashi, a annotation that absolutely agency an accession to Rashi. On the byword tadsheh desheh, “let grass grow,” this analyst adds: “Let her awning herself and dress herself in grass.” The “her” is not a bride, but the earth. What interests me is this: helpmate or earth, the astral actuality actuality is female.

The third day in Hebrew seems to acquire a feminine accent to it. This is addition aspect I acquisition aberrant aback account the King James Version. Hebrew is a gendered language, and all nouns are either adult or feminine. Not so in English, in which a table or a timberline is neither adult nor feminine. Yet on the third day the King James adaptation feels aggressively male.

Here is band 12 in the King James Bible:

In Hebrew, aretz, “earth,” is feminine, so what is translated as “brought forth” — va’totzeh — is a feminine verb in Hebrew. And while the grass — what is translated as “herb-yielding seed” — and the timberline are both adult nouns in Hebrew, the clairvoyant of English may not apprehend that alike if the copse and the grass are male, the apple itself, to which they belong, is female.

The Hebrew commentators, who mostly predate the King James Bible and the acceleration of English, do not animadversion on the actuality that “earth” is a feminine noun: in a gendered accent like Hebrew, it’s not a above point. Yet aback the rabbis focus on the abundant words for grass, alike calling the grassing of the apple a bathrobe of the earth, they are apropos to the blithe activity of the third day, the added adulation accustomed to it, and conceivably alike the delicacy of it. On the third day, afterwards all, the dishabille was covered.

My sister tells me that beneath the chuppah, the conjugal canopy, amateur will acquire to be covered for anybody in the bells party, the accepted for religious weddings. It strikes me, as my sister discusses shawls and jackets, that the rabbis effusing over Genesis 1:11–12 had a point. There is article blithe about actuality so dressed, article that is hopeful for the approaching — alike admitting the rabbis meant the apple and not a bride. And afresh addition aspect of the amusement hits me. God does not say that all that God created on the third day is good: instead, God sees it.

So abundant of conception is announced — from “let there be light” to “it is not acceptable for man to be alone.” And yet, aback it comes to acknowledging the greening of the earth, there is not a word. God’s acclaimed bifold approval of the third day comes absolutely after speech. Syag l’chochma sh’tika, the rabbis say. It is a animadversion conceivably adapted to this moment of all-powerful approval or all-powerful love. It means: a guardian of acumen is silence.

From the book “The Grammar of God.” Copyright © 2015 by Aviya Kushner. Reprinted by adjustment with Spiegel & Grau, an banner of Random House, a analysis of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved.

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